EPA or an authorized state issues a permit containing corrective action requirements (as well as schedule for implementing those requirements) for investigating and, if necessary, cleaning up contamination at or from a RCRA-regulated facility.EPA issues an administrative order to address various circumstances, such as where EPA or an authorized state has not yet issued a permit, there are potential imminent and substantial risks, or investigations are needed. A State issues an order under their own cleanup or brownfields redevelopment authorities.
EPA and states are working to ensure that cleanups conducted under these alternative state authorities satisfy RCRA obligations. A facility owner/operator voluntarily performs corrective action by either conducting investigations and cleanups in advance of regulatory oversight, or by entering into a "voluntary agreement" with EPA or a State cleanup program.
Note: To avoid duplicating efforts and to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, EPA strongly recommends that facilities conducting cleanup actions without oversight by an EPA or State regulator do so with a clear understanding of applicable State and EPA requirements and implementation guidance.